What are the protocols? Describe different types of standards and standards organization with examples and internet standards.
Set of rules that govern data communication or the way of communication. Protocols are the worker that performs the tasks.
A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated and when it is communicated.
Standards are essential in creating and maintaining an open and competitive market for equipment manufacturers and in guaranteeing national and international interoperability of data and telecommunication technology and processes. Standards provide guidelines to manufacturers, vendors, government agencies, and other service providers to ensure the kind of inter-connectivity necessary in today’s marketplace and in international communications.
Data communication standards fall into two categories.
De facto: meaning “by fact” or “by convention”
De jure: meaning “by law” or “by regulation”
Standards that have not been approved by an organized body but have been adopted as standards through widespread use are de facto standards. De facto standards are often established originally by manufacturers who seek to define the functionality of a new product or technology.
Those standards that have been legislated by an officially recognized body are de jure standards.
While many organizations are dedicated to the establishment of standards, data telecommunication in North America rely primarily on those published by the following,
* International Organization for standardization (ISO)
* International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standards Sector ITU-T
* American national Standards Institute (ANSI)
* Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
* Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
International Organization for standardization (ISO)
The ISO is a multinational body whose membership is drawn mainly from the standards creation committees of various governments throughout the World. The ISO is active in deploying cooperation in the realms of scientific, technological and economic activity.
International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standards Sector ITU-T
By the early 1970’s a number of countries were defining national standards for telecommunications, but there was still little international compatibility. The united nations responded by forming, as part of its international telecommunication union (ITU), a committee, the consultative committee for international telegraphy and telephony (CCITT). This committee was devoted to the research and establishment of standards for telecommunication in general and for phone and data systems in particular. On March 1, 1993, the name of this committee was changed to the international telecommunication union telecommunication standards sector (ITI-T)
American national Standards Institute (ANSI)
Despite its name, the American national Standards Institute is a completely private, nonprofit corporation not affiliated with the U.S federal government. However, all ANSI activities are undertaken with the welfare of the united states and its citizens occupying primary importance.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is the largest professional engineering society in the world. International in scope, it aims to advance theory, creativity, and product quality in the fields of electrical engineering, electronics and radio as well as in all related branches of engineering. As one of its goal, the IEEE oversees the development and adoption of international standards for computing and communications.
Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
Aligned with ANSI, the Electronic Industries Association is a nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of electronics manufacturing concerns. Its activities include public awareness education and lobbying efforts in addition to standards development. In the field of information technology, the EIA has made significant contributions by defining physical connection interfaces and electronic signaling specifications for data communication.
An internet standard is a thoroughly tested specification that is useful to and adhered to b those who work with the internet. It is a formalized regulation that must be followed. There is a strict procedure by which a specification attains internet standard status. A specification begins as an internet draft. An internet draft is a working document (a work in progress) with no official status and a 6-month lifetime. Upon recommendation from the internet authorities, a draft may be published as a request for comment (RFC). Each RFC is edited, assigned a number, and made available to all interested parties. RFCs go through maturity levels and are categorized according to their requirement level.